By Konstantin O. Papailiou, Frank Schmuck
Composite insulators were in carrier in electrical strength networks effectively for greater than forty years, and now as much as the top working voltages. the current booklet broadly covers such insulators with a unique specialize in today’s time-honored fabric, that's silicone rubber. It features a precise description of and mechanical features of composite insulators, their fabric homes, their layout in addition to standard functions and repair adventure. specific recognition is given to the mechanical habit of lengthy rod and submit insulators, insulated cross-arms, interphase spacers and hole center equipment insulators. The cutting-edge on production methods and the choice and dimensioning of the required energy arc and corona fittings is gifted in addition to evaluate exams of “old” insulators, i.e. insulators after decades in provider. The last bankruptcy bargains with an up to the moment evaluate of try methods and IEC standards.
The choice and the contents of a number of the topics coated during this publication are in keeping with the authors’ greater than thirty years of expertise with a well known ecu producer of composite insulators and string undefined. Their lengthy and lively participation within the suitable CIGRE and IEC operating our bodies including to this adventure. This publication is hence addressed to practising engineers from electrical utilities and the undefined, in addition to to educational professionals.
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Additional info for Silicone Composite Insulators: Materials, Design, Applications
The load which could still be borne by the broken fibres is increasingly transferred completely to the healthy fibres, which will also fail by the same mechanism after a certain period of time until all fibres, and therefore the FRP rod, have broken. It makes sense that the higher the load, the more fibres will break over a rather short period of time and the quicker the described relaxation processes will occur. However, if the overall initial load lies below a certain threshold value, for example the limit value for the first fibre breakages (damage limit load or DLL), then hardly any fibres will break on the basis of this model, even if the load is applied to the insulator for an infinite period of time.
17 Load transfer processes in the fibres of an FRP rod under axial load original load from the broken fibre to the healthy adjacent fibres, which are thus loaded increasingly, which in turn results in these adjacent fibres being stressed to a greater extent at the point of break of the broken fibre. It has been attempted to illustrate this physical process schematically in Fig. 17. However, since the adhesion between glass fibres and resin matrix is subject to relaxation, this leads to a decrease in the ‘‘load transfer capability’’ of the fibre matrix composite over time, especially as the interface between fibre and resin matrix is loaded.
Lastly, it should be noted that the shear stress srz is distributed reasonably evenly, except at the fitting/rod interface where end effects manifest themselves and values of up to 50 MPa are attained, which correspond to the rod’s shear failure limit. 4 Design and Assembly of End Fittings for Composite Long Rods 45 Fig. 3 Numerical Simulation Results in the Event of Failure It is evident from the above that the critical state of inner stress, which may cause the FRP rod to split in two, occurs during crimping.