Bringing about change in language education by David Nunan, Roger Berry, Vivien Berry

By David Nunan, Roger Berry, Vivien Berry

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Cicero’s major tactic in presenting the prosecutor is a withering irony, as for example when he calls him praeclarus, auctor, and patronus. In the portrayal of Balbus, invidia presented difficulties, and the Spaniards ethos is meant to dissipate the jealousy. Here Balbus’ loyalty to Rome, his hard work, self-sacrifice, and compassion to Cicero’s family during the exile are stressed. In his own portrayal, in order to circumvent accusations of cravenness, Cicero depicts himself as a prudent, elder statesman, willing to set aside personal enmities for the good of the state.

Corneli quam aequitas vestra pudorem eius adiutura videatur. Itaque quod maxime petendum est a vobis idcirco non peto, iudices, ne de vestra sapientia atque de vestra humanitate dubitare videar” (18–19) (“I do not understand why it appears that ill-will will injure Lucius Cornelius’ merit rather than that your sense of fairness will help a man of his modesty. ”). The unstated request is to acquit Balbus. The praeteritio is clever, in effect equating an acquittal with the aequitas and humanitas of the jurors.

187). In this dissertation, pathos will be differentiated from ethos as distinctly as possible. Ethos represents the portrayal of character, involving the milder emotion of sympathy, and pathos the stronger emotional reaction which the orator is attempting to produce in the audience. The emotion may be aroused by a portrayal of character, as for example, with Pompey and Marius. Where Cicero employs these former consuls to provoke intense feelings both of admiration and of patriotism, ethos has given way to pathos, and Pompey and Marius become fitting subjects for a discussion of emotional appeal.

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