By Nicholas Stern, Bertil Tungodden, Ivar Kolstad
The yearly global financial institution convention on improvement Economics (ABCDE) brings jointly the world's most interesting improvement thinkers to give their views and concepts. lately, a parallel, moment convention has been held in Europe with an identical aim of increasing the move of rules among thinkers, practitioners, and policymakers within the box of overseas improvement. ABCDE Europe 2003 provides chosen papers from the fourth annual ABCDE Europe conferences, held June 24-26, 2002, in Oslo, Norway. Hosted by means of the realm financial institution and the Chr. Michelsen Institute, greater than 350 eminent students and practitioners from 50 international locations met to planned at the subject matter 'Towards Pro-Poor Policies'. The papers from periods on reduction, associations, and globalization supply either a basic assessment of hyperlinks among poverty, inequality, and development, and handle particular issues reminiscent of the seriously Indebted bad international locations Initiative for debt aid. All reflect on the function of regulations and associations in improvement and poverty relief. during this quantity: an outline by means of Bertil Tungodden, Ivar Kolstad, and Nicholas Stern; papers on reduction via Nicholas Stern, David Roland-Holst and Finn Tarp, Stephan Klasen, Lisa Chauvet and Patrick Guillaumont, and Jean-Pierre hang, Mireille Razafindrakoto, and Fran?ois Roubaud; papers on associations through Mariano Tommasi, Mushtaq Khan, David Dunham, Stanley Engerman and Kenneth Sokoloff, Karla Hoff and Joseph Stiglitz; and papers on globalization via Jomo Sundaram, John Dunning, Antonio Spilimbergo, Juan Luis Londo?o, and Miguel Szekely, Andr?s Solimano, and Oded Stark.
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Extra info for Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics-Europe 2003: Toward Pro-Poor Policies--Aid, Institutions, and Globalization (Annual World Bank Conference ... Bank Conference on Development Economics)
More recently, it has launched systematic programs to develop surveys of key factors in the processes driving development. In particular, these involve investment climate surveys of firms aimed at understanding where the major constraints to growth are and surveys of the processes shaping basic services, which assess the quantity and quality of services actually available and delivered. These process indicators complement the household surveys by providing insight into the processes that generate poverty reduction.
Of the two or three dozen countries with the poorest institutions and policies, over the last two decades only a few have made major improvements in the environment for growth and poverty reduction. Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Uganda are unusual among these countries in having achieved significant progress. Others have seen few advances, and the performance of the Bank lending portfolio in this group has been poor: projects have failed at double the rate for other countries. Approaches that work in the typical low-income country may not be appropriate in these poor-policy countries, as they typically lack the basis for country leadership of reform, and traditional lending conditionality has not worked well in inducing and supporting reform.
According to World Bank calculations, on average, poor people face tariffs for their exports that are twice as high as those rich people face (World Bank 2001a). Nontariff barriers also remain a problem, such as when phyto-sanitary regulations are used for protectionist purposes. For example, the European Union requires that for camel cheese imported from Mauritania, one of the poorest countries in the world, the camels must be milked mechanically (Wilson 2002). A second priority for trade architecture is revising the intellectual property regime to increase its benefits to developing countries.