By Richard H. Vollmerhausen
Advancing expertise in detector arrays, flat panel monitors, and electronic picture processing presents new possibilities to extend imaging purposes and increase procedure functionality. Technical managers and layout engineers are confronted with comparing the price, weight, and function of an ever-expanding choice of know-how suggestions. This educational textual content offers the idea, techniques, and knowledge essential to overview and evaluate the functionality of accessible imaging applied sciences. half I updates the sooner paintings provided in research of Sampled Imaging structures (2000). half II discusses functionality evaluate of electro-optical imagers. half III presents desktop courses (on a supplemental CD-ROM) and up to date info on detector arrays, optics, and demonstrate strategies. The booklet covers quite a few demonstrate codecs and interfaces, and gives specific details on to be had focal aircraft arrays (FPAs). specific emphasis is put on conception and perform for the wide range of accessible infrared FPAs. applied sciences represented contain InSb, HgCdTe, QWIP, and uncooled thermal arrays. info is equipped at the quantum potency, blur, crosstalk, and noise features of every know-how. The detector and array dimensions of accessible FPAs are supplied. the data on optics, exhibit, and FPA subassemblies permits the version person to make speedy and practical functionality checks of electro-optical imager designs.
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Extra info for Analysis and Evaluation of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE Tutorial Text Vol. TT87) (SPIE Tutorial Texts)
G() results from multiplying S() by R(). 14) n0 where (*) denotes convolution. 15) so that g ( x) N 1 f (nX ) ( x nX ) r ( x). 16) n0 A convolution in the space domain is a multiplication in the frequency domain. Taking the Fourier transform of both sides of Eq. 16) and knowing that the Fourier transform of (x–nX) is exp–j2nX, Eq. 12) gives the Fourier transform for G(). Thus far, the sampling process has been dealt with in a physical and, hopefully, intuitive manner. However, Eqs.
Two measures are useful in quantifying MTF. The first is Shade’s equivalent bandwidth Ne, which is the total sine-wave power passed by the MTF. The second metric is integrated signal Isig to the first zero. Bandwidth beyond the first zero is generally not useful for imaging. 6 Diffraction MTF minus the separable approximation. Diffraction cutoff is at 10 mrad1. Fourier Integral Representation of an Optical Image 39 Ne MTF 2 (ξ,η) dξ dη . I sig MTF (ξ,η) dξ dη . 79. That is, the separable MTF predicts 21% less energy transfer than physically occurs.
1 Imager components Diffraction MTF Hdiff for a circular aperture is given by Eq. 15). D is the aperture diameter, and is wavelength; both dimensions are in meters. Spatial frequencies ξ and are in cycles per milliradian (mrad1). χ 1000 ξ 2 η2 cycles per radian. 2 2 1 χλ χλ χλ χλ H diff (ξ,η) cos 1 for 1. D π D D D χλ 1. 16 shows diffraction MTF Hblock versus radial frequency for circular apertures with circular blockages. 16 MTF of circular apertures that are partially blocked by circular obstructions.