Acoustical imaging : techniques and applications for by Woon Siong Gan

By Woon Siong Gan

''Acoustical Imaging begins with an advent to the fundamental theories and ideas of acoustics and acoustical imaging, then progresses to debate its diverse functions: nondestructive checking out, clinical imaging, underwater imaging and SONAR and geophysical exploration. the writer attracts jointly the various applied sciences, highlighting the similarities among subject components and their universal underlying concept. Some

''Introduces the fundamental theories and rules of acoustics and acoustical imaging''--Provided by means of publisher. Read more...

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Sonar also uses beamforming to compensate for the significant problem of the slower propagation speed of sound compared to that of electromagnetic radiation. In side-look sonars, the speed of the towing system, or vehicle carrying the sonar, is sufficient to move the sonar out of the field of returning sound. In addition to focusing algorithms intended to improve reception, many side-scan sonars also employ beamsteering to look forward and backward to capture incoming pulses that would have been missed by a single side-looking beam.

3 Replication Replication is a zero-order hold where each pixel along a scan line is repeated once and each scan line is then repeated. 43) This gives v(m,n) = u(k, l),k = Int n m , l = Int , m,n = 0, 1, 2 . . 2 shows some examples of interpolation by replication. 4 Linear Interpolation Linear interpolation is a first-order hold where a straight line is first fitted between pixels along a row. The pixels along each column are then interpolated along a straight line. 2 shows some examples of linear interpolation.

55) k=0 where ε(n) is a zero mean white noise process of variance β 2 . 5 Beamforming Beamforming is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. Beamforming can be used for sound waves or radio waves, but here we will focus only on sound waves as it has numerous applications in sonar, speech, and siesmology. The spatial selectivity is achieved by using adaptive or fixed receive/transmit beam patterns. The improvement compared with an omnidirectional reception/transmission is known as the receive/transmit gain (or loss).

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