A History of Brewing in Holland 900-1900: Economy, by Richard W. Unger

By Richard W. Unger

This identify bargains a entire background of brewing in Holland from the beginnings of huge scale construction on the finish of the 1st millennium via medieval growth, the growth of the Renaissance, and the disastrous decline of the seventeenth and 18th centuries. It closes with the revival of the within the period of industrialization. significant technical strategies, from Germany, within the 14th and back within the nineteenth century, made it attainable for brewing to take a number one position within the Dutch financial system. the difference of these advancements went on continuously lower than the cautious supervision of the nation. hoping on the huge documents of city and provincial governments the writer strains the cooperation in addition to pressure among brewers and public professionals spanning a thousand years.

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Loenen, De Haarlemse Brouwindustrie voor 1600 (Amsterdam, 1950), p. 26; Friedrich Techen, "Das Brauwerk in Wismar," Hansisches Geschichtsblatter 21 (1915), p. 333; V. T. van Vilsteren, "De oorsprong en techniek van het brouwen tot de 14de eeuw," in Bier! Geschiedenis van een volksdrank, edited by R. E. Kistemaker and V. T. van Vilsteren (Amsterdam, 1994), pp. 14-19. 18 Doorman, De Middeleeuwse Brouwerij en de Gruit, pp. x-xi, 48, 53-54. BREWING IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 21 Moreover, the ownership of the tax on gruit gave them greater authority over what was in most towns by the late thirteenth century an important industry.

Just as the system of distribution through taverns was regularized, so too was the system of taxation. In Holland taxes on gruit were complemented by the newer excise taxes. The system of payment and officers responsible were in place in almost every town, even in some rather small ones. The product of urban brewers might be made with the same ingredients and in the same way as the product of country brewers but there was apparently a significant difference in the quality of the beers. Urban brewers could produce better beer and by 1300 were finding a market in the countryside for their superior product.

The charging of gruitgeld dates from even before 1304, an indication of how universal the tax was. Amersfoort, not far to the east and destined to be a great center of brewing, already had a brewing industry when it got stadtrecht from the bishop of Utrecht in 1 259. It proved impossible to impose gruitrecht in the countryside though it was tried by a family who owned the tax in 21 Bing, Hamburgs Bierbrauerei vom 14. bis ^wm 18. Jahrhundert, p. ," pp. 24-27; Rudolph Hapke, Briigges Entwicklung zum mittelalterlichen Weltmarkt (Berlin, 1908), p.

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