By John Pallanch
A worldwide pool of surgeons and researchers utilizing third-dimensional imaging for facial cosmetic surgery current themes on: snapshot fusion in pre-operative making plans; using 3D imaging instruments together with stereolithographic modeling and intraoperative navigation for maxillo-mandibular and complicated orbital reconstruction; personalized, three-d, intraoperative surgical courses for nasal reconstruction; the advantages and boundaries of utilizing an built-in 3D digital method for maxillofacial surgical procedure; 3D quantity review strategies and computer-aided layout and production for pre-operative fabrication of implants in head and neck reconstruction; A comparability of other new 3D imaging applied sciences in facial cosmetic surgery; 3D images within the target research of quantity augmentation together with fats augmentation and dermal fillers; overview of other rhinoplasty innovations via overlay of prior to and after 3D pictures; 3D volumetric research of mixed facial lifting and volumizing...
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Additional resources for 3-D Imaging Technologies in Facial Plastic Surgery, an Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics
The next group of articles delineates the use of 3D tools in surgery. Last, articles describe the use of 3D to assess the changes resulting from surgery. The descriptions of the technology include a broad overview of many of the capabilities of various 3D imaging modalities (Schendel, Duncan, Lane) and then additional useful background information about the development of 3D technology including guidelines for shopping for a 3D system (Tzou and Frey). For 3D esthetic considerations, the article by Cingi and Oghan brings a different perspective as the authors describe how their course provides facial plastic surgeons with a real and tactile 3D experience, and also cerebral practice, that very much overlaps the 3D appreciation of how a surgeon will interact with anatomy obtained from 3D image analysis.
Some themes prevail throughout these articles. One is the inadequacy of measurements or analysis done in 2D. Comparing image analysis in 3D with that performed in two dimensions is analogous to comparing the impact of viewing a sculpture with viewing a drawing of the same subject. Everything surgeons do is in 3D, resulting in 3D changes in tissue. Whether the surgery is reconstructive or purely aesthetic, being able to plan in 3D or execute with 3D guides using premanufactured 3D templates or prostheses, or even image guidance, can be invaluable.
Laser-based Surface Imaging In its basic form, a laser scanner calculates the coordinate of each point on the surface of the target by measuring the time it takes for a projected light ray to return to a sensor. To improve efficiency, more complex patterns are projected, such as a light stripe. This technology of scanning the face with a laser is based on projecting a known pattern of light to infer an object’s topography. This light can be in the form of a single bright light source; however, a light stripe is more commonly used.